Amblyopia is a condition in which one of the eyes has less vision ability as compared to the other eye. It is usually present in children at the time of birth or may develop during early childhood due to abnormal development of vision. The nerve connection between the eye and brain is not properly established due to which it learns to perceive signals from the better eye, ignoring the one with lesser vision ability. This condition is also known as lazy eye.
It may have one of the three following types:
Strabismic amblyopia occurs when one of the yes is not straight. It may be turned in or out, up or down. The brain then focuses on the straight eye, shutting down the other one.
When the child's vision is deprived due to medical conditions like cataracts, the deprivation amblyopia is developed. In some cases, it may affect the vision of both eyes.
When there is a large refractive error between both eyes, refractive amblyopia develops. In this case, the brain learns to see well from the eye with better vision and hence child doesn't complain about blurred vision.
Treatment of amblyopia is possible if diagnosed correctly. The treatment depends on the type of problem. Children with strabismic amblyopia have to go through a strabismic eye surgery to straighten the defected eye. After the surgery, the previously straight patched for some time to force the brain to focus on the other eye as well. Some vision therapies are also given to bring both eyes into equilibrium working. Refractive amblyopia can be treated by the use of eyeglasses or contact lens. Eye patching might also be required here to force the brain to use both eyes' vision.
The earlier the problem is diagnosed and treated, the more accurate results will be achieved. It can also be treated in adults and older children but the results are not that perfect. If not detected or treated as early as possible, this condition can cause a permanent visual defect as well as loss of depth perception. If in case the eye with stronger vision gets injured, then this can lead to a lifetime of poor vision. Such people are at a greater risk to lose vision if suffer from a trauma. For the well-being of your own children, regular eye checkup, and immediate treatment is very necessary.